The Cayapa Indians:
The Cayapas Indians, specifically the Chachi are primary hunter-gatherers that provide scenarios that exemplify the division of labor resulting from pair bonding and male hunting bias. Additionally, Behavioral Regularities transforming into Institutionalized Rules regarding the incest taboo and elements of the African kinship model are present within Chachi society. Milton Atschulers studies of The Chachi are based on the underlying assumption of social control by law. Atschuler is characterized by a functional-realist epistemological approach, and as such he views law as a relationship based on social norms that are essentially agreements between communities. His writing assumes that the need for law fulfills a necessary function is Chachi society, taking a sociological approach, viewing culture as the sole factor of maintaining society, similar to Rousseau and Levi-Strauss.
Chapais makes the claim that the “dietary function of hunting might have served as family coprovisioning…[and] subsequently served the reproductive functions” (Chapais 2008) where the male hunting bias and pair bonding lead to the division of labor. The Chachi provide evidence that hunting serves a dual function in contemporary hunter-gatherer societies exemplified in the division of labor. Men are hunters and fishers, while women clean, cook and take care of domestic duties. Parents coprovision children and teach them their social roles, though as Chapais posits, the phylogenetic origins of pair bonding were not directly related to parental coprovisioning, despite it serving a contemporary function. The male hunting bias, operating by sexual specialization, is present in Chachi society. The division of labor is perpetuated by ont...
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