I. Early History of Anthropology in the United States 1870-1900
“The roots of anthropology lie in the eye-witness accounts of travelers who have journeyed to lands on the margins of state-based societies and described their cultures and in the efforts of individuals who have analyzed the information collected. In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, a number of anthropologists recognized that the practice of anthropology was intimately linked to commerce and colonial expansion.” (Patterson 1)
There were essentially three “schools” of anthropological thinking by the First World War and after. The first, cultural determinism, maintained by Franz Boas and his students, stressed the interrelation of “ethnology, linguistics, folklore, archaeology as an autonomous academic discipline” (Patterson 55). The second was physical anthropology, whose major proponent was Ales Hrdlicka of the National Museum; it stressed biology and wanted physical anthropology to be a distinct academic discipline. The third was the eugenics movement, propagated by Charles B Davenport, it maintained that the status of eugenics, or racial hierarchization, was a legitimate science and asserted the supremacy of White Anglo-Saxon Protestants. Because of page constraints we will not examine closely physical anthropology, as it is not absolutely vital in a treatment of the development of anthropology as a discipline, but briefly it is the application of biological data and principles to the study man in society.
Anthropology in the United States in the period immediately following the Revolution and the drafting of the constitution was used to fulfill three purposes: (1) forge a national iden...
... middle of paper ...
...f Columbia’s first instructors in anthropology; he used his positions at the American Museum of Natural History and Columbia University to train a generation of anthropologists. Boas, by 1932, had instructed a sizeable number of people from these marginalized groups, who were lumped together as savages or inferior races. We must remember however, as Dr. Paterson points out, that, “Anthropology was professionalized during a period characterized by intense discrimination against people of color, immigrants, women, and poor folks” (65).
Boas, Franz. “Report on the Academic Teaching of Anthropology.” In American Anthropologist, 21:41-48, 1919.
Kroeber, A.L. “The Place of Anthropology in Universities.” In American Anthropologist, 56: 754-767, 1954.
Patterson, Thomas C. A Social History of Anthropology in the United States. Oxford: Berg, 2001.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Anthropology, ‘a discipline with a rich and distinguished history of studying the everyday life of other cultures’, cited ou e214 intro tounit 4 analysing ‘social relationships’ kehily p163, corresponding to ‘family, religion, political and economic lives and how society works’. Anthropology was initially lectured in 1884 at Oxford, overlapping with geography and archaeology, heavily influenced by evolution. The majority of anthropology was studied at a distance, people studied were never encountered.... [tags: Anthropology, Culture, Sociology, Adolescence]
1271 words (3.6 pages)
- Alfred Louis Kroeber was born in New Jersey in 1876 and later grew up in New York City where he attended a New York prep school. Kroeber was not only well-educated as a child, but he was also multilingual. It was arguably this strong educational background and history of assiduousness and discipline that contributed to Kroeber’s later success in an academic setting and in the field of Anthropology. By 1917, Alfred Kroeber was already flourishing in his field. By 1897, Kroeber received Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in English from Columbia College.... [tags: Anthropology, Franz Boas, Culture]
1223 words (3.5 pages)
- During the 20th century, anthropology has developed following influential people such as Boas. The four subfields existed for a long time as separate fields, but with the direction of examining human culture within the United States, it became important to be holistic. Each subfield contributed greatly as no one field can study the entire breadth or depth of culture and behavior. However, there are forces that are contributing to each field going in its own direction that can lead to a break-up in the future.... [tags: Ethnic Groups, Native Americans]
1802 words (5.1 pages)
- STUDY UNIT 1 Question 1: What makes the discipline of anthropology qualitative in nature. Anthropology delves into the complexities of human societies, with a holistic approach to their culture and development. In doing so, the anthropological researcher ethically focuses on all human aspects and favours an approach that is centred on collecting and analysing data which is mostly non-numerical and rich in accumulative detail. Unlike in other scientific disciplines which favour quantitative research methods, anthropological researchers prefer using participant-observation techniques, as well as an emic approach in order to gain insight into the lives of the people being studied.... [tags: Anthropology, Sociology, Culture]
1504 words (4.3 pages)
- The Devlopment of Reflexive Anthropology Reflexive anthropology has pressured scholoars to recognize their own biases and look increasingly inwards when studying “other” cultures. Reflexive anthropology is a break away from the traditional study of a clearly defined “us” and “them,” that seeks to shift towards indentification rather than difference. It attempts to uncover the politics behind ethnography. Reflexivity shows how “we” are effected by “others”, and how “others” are effected by “us.” It holds anthropologists accountable for what they write, and how they represent culture.... [tags: Cultural Anthropology Essays]
737 words (2.1 pages)
- Though women have played an integral part in the history of the discipline of anthropology, it was not until the early 1970’s that the field of anthropology and gender, or feminist anthropology emerged. Sex and gender roles have always been a vital part of any ethnographic study, but the contributors of this theory began to address the androcentric nature of anthropology itself. The substantial gap in information concerning the study of women was perceived as a male bias, a prejudice made more apparent because what little women-centered fieldwork was done received insufficient attention from the academic community.... [tags: Feminist Anthropology ]
1582 words (4.5 pages)
- ... Throughout the readings in class, intervention has come up in a lot of them such as in the article by Feng. According to Gwynne intervention is “the explicit, hands on attempt to foster positive social, economic, or political change through direct action” (pp.8). Feng talks about how the Chinese government is trying to increase tourism, with the help of Phoenix Ancient Town Tourism (PATT), in regards of helping their economy. Feng had visited the Fenghuang County in 2002 before the tourism boom and mentioned that it was peaceful and the “perfect getaway place where people could experience a slow and laid back traditional lifestyle” (Feng pp.... [tags: Anthropology, Sociology, Cultural anthropology]
1613 words (4.6 pages)
- Introduction Prior to my enrollment at the University of Manitoba I, like many other individuals, interpreted gender as a synonymous word to sex. This false interpretation stems from my upbringing in a French Catholic community where I was taught to interpret gender as a static and bounded binary concept with two fixed options: male or female. Consequently, I have yet begun to understand the multidimensional arrays of gender identity, gender expression, and gender roles. Non-binary gender expressions exist all over the world, and have been recorded throughout time by historians, sociologists, and anthropologist.... [tags: inuit community, homosexuality]
3197 words (9.1 pages)
- What is anthropology. When I was signing up for classes that is what I wondered myself. It is not an easy subject to fully understand for me at the least. It is all confusing to me. I feel like it can be hard to study a human when obviously you are a human yourself, I am sure it is easy to miss important and helpful information that would clarify research of humans. It is the research of humanity from its evolutionary origins to today’s cultural diversity. It is not only studying the past but the present of human kind.... [tags: Anthropology, Culture, Sociology]
1674 words (4.8 pages)
- Anthropology Today In society today, the discipline of anthropology has made a tremendous shift from the practices it employed years ago. Anthropologists of today have a very different focus from their predecessors, who would focus on relating problems of distant peoples to the Western world. In more modern times, their goal has become much more local, in focusing on human problems and issues within the societies they live. This paper will identify the roles anthropologists today play, such as where they perform the bulk of their work, and what it is they do in both problem solving, as well as policy making.... [tags: Anthropology]
1735 words (5 pages)